4.1 Chromosomes, Genes, and Alleles

1. State: Eukaryotic chromosome is made of DNA and protein.

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2. Define: gene, allele, and genome.

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3. Define: a gene mutation is a change in the base sequence of a gene.

4. Explain the consequence of a base substitution mutation in relation to the process of transcription and translation, using the example of sickle cell anemia.

                                        normal			sickle cell mutation

               DNA			CTC				CAC
               transcription
               mRNA		        GAG				GUG
               translation
               amino acid		glutamic acid		        valine
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4.2 Lecture Notes